For reliability, test-retest analysis was used, and the internal consistency of the HPLP-II was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha. For data analysis. HPLP II. Reference work entry. DOI: 5_ Downloads. How to cite. Chinese Health-Promoting Lifestyle. The Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II. (HPLP-II) (16) was developed to measure the multicomponent of healthy lifestyles. It was a revision of.

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With increasing age, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases. Since health-promoting behaviors HPB are considered a basic way of preventing diseases, especially chronic diseases, it is important to assess HPB.

This is a cross-sectional study which is conducted on elderly individuals aged 60 and over in Tehran, Iran. In order to determine the validity, content and construct validity were used. The content validity index CVI was used to assess the content ii and to assess construct validity, confirmatory factor oi CFAand item-total correlations were employed. The mean age of the subjects was Intraclass correlation coefficient was obtained 0.

hplo The improvement of health conditions has enhanced longevity and consequently increased the population of the elderly in Iran. Iran’s population is also aging at a dramatic speed. The most common causes of death in all age groups above 50 years are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, and accidents;[ 45 ] all these diseases can be prevented by health-promoting behavior HPB.

The attitude indicating it is too late to change or modify poor health behaviors in older adults is totally wrong. Decision-makers on health issues, prior to any intervention aimed at promoting healthy behaviors, must first make an initial assessment of the current situation.

Validity and Reliability of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II in the Iranian Elderly

When considering certain conditions and diseases of the elderly, the iii of lifestyle, especially in relation to HPB during this stage of life, is very important. Therefore, the availability of effective tools is necessary. It has been translated into different languages including Spanish, Japanese, Arabic, Chinese, and Turkish,[ 131415 ] and its validity and reliability have been verified.

In order to assess the health behaviors of jplp people, a comprehensive tool for measuring health behaviors is required. Furthermore, it is essential to the evaluation of the interventions effectiveness rat in research studies of related to elder. Since the population of Iran is aging fast and there are no adequate tools to assess of health behaviors in older population in Iran, it is necessary that the tool is localized in order to measure the lifestyle of the elderly and evaluate HPB, so that hhplp can be used in planning the health field.

The population of the study was the elderly of the city of Tehran. Sampling was conducted by convenience sampling method and elderly people visiting cultural centers, parks, and health centers in two areas in the north and south of Tehran were enrolled in the study. To assess the validity and reliability, 10 samples are recommended for each question. Among them, five were unable to hpop part in the study, so a retest was completed with the participation of 47 subjects.

To assess the absence of cognitive disorders, the elderly people were assessed by the clock drawing test CDT before entering the study. The tree persons excluded for ki the CDT test.


The CDT is valid and reliable for the elderly of Iran;[ 17 ] it is a valid instrument to identify and screen for severe cognitive disorders, particularly Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to the demographic variables questionnaire, the main tool used in this research included a second version of the health-promoting lifestyle profile HPLP-II that was first designed by Walker et al. The original version of this questionnaire consists of 52 items that measure HPB in six subscales nutrition, physical activity, health responsibility, stress management interpersonal relationships, and spiritual growth.

Each subscale includes of several items nutrition: Nine items; physical activity: Nine; and spiritual growth: The options for the questions are given on a four-point Likert scale never, sometimes, often, routinely. Overall, the score for health-promoting lifestyle and behavioral aspects is calculated using the mean of responses for all 52 items and for each subscale eight or nine items. The lowest and highest total score is 52 andrespectively. The Persian version of this questionnaire was made valid and reliable by Zeidi et al.

Therefore, we avoid the repetition of the translating process, and we used it with the consent of the authors. The Persian version of this questionnaire was given to 10 specialists five experts in gerontology, five specialists in health promotion to determine its content validity index CVI.

Then, as a pilot study to assess of face validity, questionnaires were given to 20 of the elderly people, and the final reforms were implemented. Then, to assess of face validity, questionnaires were given to 20 of the elderly people.

To determine the construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis CFA and item-total correlations were used. CFA is part of the measurement model that examines relationships between variables and the observed factors.

Item-total correlations were calculated to assess how the items of a scale differentiated the elders with regard to their HPB. Next, to determine the internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used, and to verify the time reliability, the test-retest method was used. Correlation between the scores obtained from the two investigations in 2 weeks interval was assessed by calculating the class correlation coefficient ICC.

Accepted values for Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and ICC 0. The characteristics of the subjects on the demographic variables were evaluated using independent t -tests and ANOVA to detect any significant differences between the two or more groups. Assurances were given to all elderly that their information would be kept completely confidential. In the current study, assured to subjects that their information will remain confidential. A total of questionnaires were completed by the elderly subjects.

Other demographic information details of the subjects are shown in Table 1. In order to have a sufficient number of samples for use in factor analysis, the KMO value was obtained as 0. The CVI for the construct on interpersonal relationships was 0. In investigating the face validity, the questionnaire was given to 20 elderly people as a pilot, and at this stage, some modifications were made. Cronbach’s alpha values indicate good internal consistency of the questionnaire.

For all subscales of the questionnaire, it was in the range of 0. Using factor analysis, six main factors were approved.

Other studies have also reached six factors in their factor analysis. These findings are consistent with other studies. The married elderly had better self-care practices, and this is definitely related to the family’s role in emotional, ethical, and informational support. When knowledge and awareness are present, better performance is expected.


The ICC of 0. Furthermore, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for its subscales were suitable too, as in other studies. Generally, the three subscales of spiritual growth, interpersonal relationships and stress management were highly correlated with each other. This is consistent with other studies. Items 10 exercise vigorously30 long-term goalsand 52 exposure to new experiences and challenges had Pearson correlation coefficients under 0.

The first limitation of this study was that the sampling method was convenience sampling; random sampling was not possible in this study. Another limitation of this study was that the illiterate elderly were not investigated. Given that the population of illiterate elderly in Iran is high, psychometric examination of tools for the illiterate elderly is recommended.

Regarding the large number of questions in the questionnaire, the possibility of elderly people is unable to answer all the questions. Hence, recommended that in future studies, a shortened version of this tool is subject to psychometric investigation. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Int J Prev Med.

Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II | Nursing | University of Nebraska Medical Center

Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jan 1; Accepted Feb 2. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Participants To assess the validity and reliability, 10 samples are recommended for each question. Inclusion criteria Minimum age of Exclusion criteria Lack of consent. Instruments In addition to the demographic variables questionnaire, the main tool used in this research included a second version of the ui lifestyle hpkp HPLP-II that was first designed by Walker et al.

Psychometric properties The Persian version of this questionnaire was given to 10 specialists five experts in gerontology, five specialists in health promotion to determine its content validity index CVI. Open in a separate window. Table 3 Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and correlation iii subscales.

Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. Reliability, validity and factor structure of the GHQ used among elderly Iranians.

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