Fundamentos de limnología neotropical. by Gabriel Roldán Pérez; John Jairo Ramírez Restrepo. Print book: State or province government publication. Spanish. FUNDAMENTOS DE LIMNOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL 2 EDICION by Gabriel y otro Roldan Perez at – ISBN X – ISBN Fundamentos de Limnología Neotropical – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

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CIAT Library catalog › Details for: Fundamentos de limnología neotropical

The study of aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics: I ; Bini, LM. Aquatic macrophytes comprises a diverse group of organisms including angiosperms, ferns, limmnologa, liverworts and some macroalgae that occur in seasonally or permanently wet environments. Among other implications, aquatic macrophytes are highly productive and with an important structuring role on aquatic environments.

Ecological studies involving aquatic plants substantially increased in the last years. However, a precise view of researches devoted to aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics is necessary to reach a reliable lkmnologa of the scientific production.

In the current study, we performed a scientometrics analysis of the scientific production devoted to Neotropical macrophytes in an attempt to find the main trends and gaps of researches concerning this group. The publication devoted to macrophytes in Neotropics increased conspicuously in the last two decades.

Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Chile were the most productive among Neotropical countries. Our analyses showed that the studies dealt mostly with the influences of aquatic macrophytes on organisms and abiotic features. Studies netropical a predictive approach or aiming to test ecological hypothesis are scarce.

In addition, researches aiming to describe unknown species are still necessary. This is essential to support conservation efforts and to subsidize further investigations testing ecological limniloga.

The Danish book “Lagoa Santa.

Et Bidrag til den biologiske Plantegeografi”, is one of the first publication concerning Neotropical aquatic macrophytes Thomaz and Bini, This classical book was published in by Eugene Warming who is considered by Arthur Tansley “the father of the modern plant ecology” Godwin, The systematic, distribution, phytogeography and ecology of the terrestrial vegetation surrounding Santa Lagoon were the main issues of this book.

However, Warming also described the aquatic and amphibian vegetation of this lagoon in details, making the first inferences about aquatic plant zonation and ds. The aquatic plant community or macrophytes comprises a diverse group of macrophytic organisms including angiosperms, ferns, mosses, liverworts and some freshwater macroalgae that occur in seasonally or permanently wet environments Lacoul and Freedman, ; Chambers et al. Commonly, four morphotypes or life forms are used to classify aquatic macrophytes: These plants are capable of colonizing several kinds of aquatic environments e.

In fact, when growing in suitable habitats several species are considered aquatic weeds due to massive colonization and negative effects upon aquatic diversity and ecosystem functioning Camargo et al. Among other implications, aquatic macrophytes are known as highly productive Wetzel, and with an important structuring limno,oga on aquatic environments Jeppensen et al.

This is extremely relevant, limnolova aquatic biodiversity has been related to spatial heterogeneity Grenouillet et al. Thus, ecological studies carried in aquatic environments must consider the aquatic macrophyte community as an essential component for ecosystem functioning and aquatic biodiversity conservation. Ecological studies involving aquatic plants substantially increased just after the 60’s, following the increase of studies in shallow ecosystems, globally more numerous in comparison to deep aquatic environments Esteves ; Wetzel, ; Thomaz and Bini, However, a precise view of ecological studies using aquatic macrophytes is necessary neotopical reach a reliable evaluation of the scientific production.

According to van Raana scientometric or bibliometric research of a particular study field is devoted to quantify this subject.

Analyzing and measuring the publications of a particular theme provide an output of its trends, scientific productivity, and help to identify gaps in which a greater attention is necessary Verbeek et al.

Fundamentos de limnología neotropical

Therefore, scientometrics considering publications about aquatic macrophytes in Neotropical ecosystems are essential to the progress of this relevant research field. In a critical analysis using papers published limnoogaThomaz and Bini highlighted that papers about aquatic plants in Brazil were scarce. On the other hand, these authors showed a rapid growth on the number of papers, mainly after the 80’s. Accordingly, the scientific production of Latin America also increased steeply in the last twenty years Hill, Gundamentos addition, limnological studies clearly increased in Brazil after Melo et al.

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In spite of fundamentoa trends detected by Thomaz and Bini regarding aquatic macrophytes, the investigation was done just in studies carried out in Brazil. Thus, an evaluation of publications of the whole Neotropics is still necessary. In a recent review, Chambers et al. However, these authors also affirm that there are unknown species to be described, mainly in tropical areas, impairing estimations of species richness and geographic distribution.

Accordingly, the knowledge of biodiversity is inadequate and plagued by Linnean i. These authors argue that the best way to circumvent both Wallacean and Linnean pitfalls is to invest in biodiversity inventories, but due to increasing threats, the use of biodiversity surrogates could be a way xe select priority areas for conservation when data on species distributions are lacking.

This highlights the importance and urgency of an evaluation of ecological studies neotropcal aquatic macrophytes in this region.

Fundamentos de limnología neotropical

Moreover, this appraisal could subsidize biodiversity conservancy efforts, since macrophytes are key for conservation of several aquatic e. In the current study, we performed a scientometric analysis of the scientific production devoted to Neotropical macrophytes in an attempt to find the main trends and gaps of researches devoted to this group. Specifically, we asked the following questions: The analysis was based on abstracts of papers published between and April The papers were selected using the following combination of words on the search field: After this, only the papers authored by researchers from Neotropical countries Mexico, Mesoamerican countries and South American countries were selected by using the information on the country of affiliation of the authors.

The scientific production per year was also recorded to calculate the percentage of papers concerning macrophytes in Neotropics in relation to total number of papers. The title, abstract, author addresses, publication years and publication journals were recorded for our analyses.

Further information to address our questions were taken from abstracts: Since some abstracts did not provide all information, the number of papers analyzed concerning each variable varied.

A total of papers were analyzed, considering the criteria delineated in our Methods. The total number of papers increased conspicuously in the last two decades 11 in to 52 in This tendency is coherent with the clear enhancement in the Latin American scientific production over the last decade Hill, ; Hermes-Lima et al. It is important to note that not only the total number of papers, but also the percentage of papers in relation to the total scientific production concerning aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics indexed in Scopus and ISI increased steeply from to Figure 1.

The recognition of the importance of aquatic plants on the ecosystem functioning by Neotropical limnologists can be one reason for this faster increase. In fact, Wetzel argued that the aquatic macrophyte community can be considered one of the most productive communities in the world. Another reason for the ascendant interest in aquatic plants can be related with the recent focus on the structuring role of macrophytes in aquatic habitats.

Finally, problems caused by the excessive growth of aquatic vegetation, especially in reservoirs can also be another factor accounting for this trend Thomaz and Bini, Accordingly, even considering authors from other countries, studies were also frequently conducted in these three countries Brazil: An explanation is that these countries are the three largest economies among Neotropical countries World Bank, In fact, high scientific production is associated with economic development May, Additionally, considering the whole scientific production of Latin America, previous investigations demonstrated that Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile were the more productive countries Hill, ; Hermes-Lima et al.

Furthermore, in a study evaluating the scientific impact of nations, Brazil was the only Neotropical country among the 31 most important countries worldwide, occupying the 20 th position in number of published papers King, Thomaz and Bini stressed that the variety of environments is also an important factor accounting for the interest on aquatic macrophytes in Brazil.

Almost one third of the papers out of were done by researchers of at least two different countries what indicates international cooperation. This is not a surprise, since this is the country with more scientific expression worldwide Hermes-Lima et al. In addition, USA is located in the same continent, what probably facilitates the cooperation with Neotropical countries.

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This suggests that international cooperation of Neotropical countries among themselves is still not conspicuous and should be stimulated. A great variety of journals were used to publish studies on aquatic plants and “Hydrobiologia” was the main one, publishing ca. This journal was also the favorite by international Brazilian articles on limnology until Melo et al.

Fundamentos de limnología neotropical ( edition) | Open Library

Aquatic Botany was the second journal in number of papers concerning aquatic macrophytes in Neotropics Figure 4. As it is a specific journal in the field, this seems to be the most reasonable choice. In spite of this, “Hydrobiologia”, which publishes articles in all sub-fields of Limnology with no bias regarding organisms Melo et al.

The great variety of journals suggests that aquatic plants have been studied for several purposes beyond biology or ecology. For example, there were some articles published in medical journals, since many species have been pointed as shelters for disease vectors, or even have been used in medicine.

Wetlands are numerous and occupy large areas in Neotropics Esteves, what can explain this tendency. These results indicate that studies with macrophytes are not biased toward more scarce or rare ecosystems, but they are rather carried in the most common type of ecosystem.

In addition, although not informed in the abstracts, if we consider the studies carried in lagoons, we would possibly reach the conclusion that these habitats are shallows and located in wetlands. In fact, Esteves stressed the high abundance of floodplain shallow lagoons in Neotropics, compared to deep lakes, mostly found in temperate regions. Thomaz and Bini also recorded few articles studying aquatic macrophytes in Brazilian rivers.

According to these authors, the variation in hydrological levels, high turbidity and flow velocity of Brazilian lotic ecosystems limit the development of macrophytes in river main channels, what is a probable cause for the small number of studies in these ecosystems. However, they emphasize that there are some fascinating exceptions, since the aquatic flora is well developed in some rivers e.

The studies conducted in reservoirs are probably related to the problems that aquatic macrophytes cause due to excessive growth.

Accordingly, excessive growth of aquatic plants in reservoirs has been extensively reported Thomaz et al. The low number of papers in marine environments is surprisingly, since Brazil has a wide coastal shoreline more than 8, km wide with a great variety of habitats e.

Submerged aquatic plants probably received high attention due to the important structuring role that this group provides in aquatic habitats Jeppensen et al. Also, submerged, together with free-floating aquatic plants, are targets of interest in impacted habitats such as reservoirs, since they can cause serious troubles for energetic production and water use e.

Furthermore, free-floating aquatic macrophyte species are highly productive in suitable environments Cook, ; Carignan and Neiff, ; Talling and Lemoalle, Emergent aquatic macrophytes are also highly studied, possibly due to the importance of this plants that may have extremely high primary production Piedade et al.

This could also be explained by the high importance of aquatic plant communities for the production of organic matter Piedade et al. Additionally, the historical roots of limnology in Neotropical regions are strongly correlated to investigations about ecosystem processes and functioning e.

Neiff, ; Junk, ; Esteves, Studies concerning individuals are possibly related to experiments testing specific hypothesis e. On the other hand, studies at community level frequently aim to evaluated patterns in the distribution of the abundance and in the diversity of plant communities, as well as the environmental variables affecting these metrics e.

Rolon and Maltchik, These studies are essential nowadays, since they can support conservation efforts. However, taxonomic studies are still extremely scarce only nine articles; Figure 7.

This is strikingly, since taxonomy is a central issue for ecological and conservational researches Brandon et al.