The transliteration itself is uniform, meaning that certain English letters correspond This transliteration is designed to be used on most Shabbat mornings. Before this transition, we created these transliterations to assist those who do not read Ahava Raba · Amidah · Baruch She-Amar · Blessing after the halftorah. The Amidah is the core of every Jewish worship service, and is therefore also referred to as HaTefillah, or “The prayer.” Amidah, which literally means, “ standing.
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The Amidah is the central prayer of all four services: The word Amidah literally means standing, because it is recited while standing. It is also known as Shemoneh Esreimeaning eighteen, because it originally consisted of eighteen blessings, and as tefilah prayer because it is the most important Jewish prayer. The obligation to pray three times a day, which was established by Ezra and codified in the Talmud Berakhot transliferationis fulfilled by reciting the Amidah. In the 5th century B. The exact form and order of the blessings were codified after the destruction of the Second Temple translireration the first century C.
The Amidah was expanded from eighteen to nineteen blessings in the 2nd century C. The additional blessing against heretics was initially meant to combat the threats posed by the Samaritan and Sadducee sects, and was permanently amivah to the liturgy when Jewish converts to Christianity began to inform on Jews to the Roman authorities. One should stand tranaliteration one’s feet together while reciting the Amidah as a show of respect for God.
The rabbis add that this pose mirrors the vision of angels that Ezekiel had in which the feet of the angels appeared as one Ezekiel 1: The custom translteration to face the direction of Israel, and if one is in Israel, to turn to Jerusalem and the Temple Mount.
This shows respect for the Temples, which were central to Jewish life, and reminds one that the synagogue was established transliteratino try to fill the gap in Jewish life left by the Temples’ destruction. In many synagogues in the west, the ark is on the eastern wall of the synagogue for this reason. The Amidah is a person’s opportunity to approach God in private prayer, and transliterqtion therefore be said quietly.
The words must be audible to oneself, but one should be careful to pray softly enough not to disturb others. If one is alone, it is permissible to raise one’s voice slightly if it helps concentration.
It is forbidden to interrupt the Amidah even to greet an important person. One should not even acknowledge a greeting. Only a grave emergency justifies interrupting the Amidahsince it is considered a conversation with God.
There are several interesting customs relating to one’s physical position while saying the Amidah. Amudah one begins the Amidahit is customary to take three small steps forward as if one is approaching a king.
Transliterated Prayers | Congregation Etz Chaim
Some say this was derived from Abraham who “came forward” to pray for the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah Genesis Where there is not much space, it has become the practice to take several tiny steps back before taking the three symbolic steps forward. To humble oneself before God, one bends the knees and bows at both the beginning and the end of the first blessing while saying ” Barukh atah ” Blessed are you.
One should stand erect in time to say God’s name, ” Adonai. This symbolizes that the heart is the source of the temptation to sin. One bows again during the eighteenth blessing, for thanksgiving, both at the beginning, during the words ” Modim anahnu lakh ” We thank you and at the end with the words ” Baruch atah.
While saying that line, it is customary to bow three times: This is again symbolic of a subject leaving a king. The Amidah affords the opportunity to insert one’s private prayers. During the eighth blessing, for healing, many siddurim prayer books include a prayer that asks God to heal a specific person and has a place to insert the name of anyone who is sick. This is done by saying the person’s Hebrew name, then ” ben ” son of or ” bat ” daughter ofand then his or her mother’s name for example, Joseph ben Sarah or Miriam bat Sarah.
Personal requests may be made during any of the blessings, but in the sixteenth blessing specifically, which asks God to hear our prayers, it is appropriate to insert one’s own requests. The appropriate place in this blessing is after the words ” raykam al teshivanu ” do not turn us away empty. These additional prayers can be said in any language for any need.
Jewish Prayers: The Amidah
At every service except for maarivthe chazzan cantor repeats the Amidah after the congregation has recited the prayer privately. This repetition is called hazarat ha-shatz. It was instituted originally for the benefit of those who were not able to recite the Amidah properly on their own.
Tansliteration listening and answering “Amen” at the end of each blessing, these worshipers fulfilled their obligation of prayer. The reason the Amidah is not repeated at maariv is because the Talmud treats maariv as originally having been optional, meaning that it does not have the same level of obligation.
During his repetition, the chazzan adds a prayer called Kedushah holinesstranaliteration proclaims the holiness of God in the language that the angels are said to have used. Kedushah is said only with a minyan quorem of tenand may not be interrupted for conversation. Like transliteratioh Amidah itself, it should be transliteratoin while standing with one’s feet together. Even teansliteration one happens to be present, and not praying, while the Kedushah is recited, one must stop what he is doing and join in.
It is customary to raise oneself slightly on one’s toes three times when saying Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh holy, holy, holy to symbolize the movement of the angels and to reach towards God with one’s whole body.
There are some minor differences between the Sephardi and Ashkenazi texts of Kedushah.
One other change in hazarat ha-shatz is that when the chazzan reaches the blessing of thanksgiving modimhe recites the standard blessing while the congregation recites silently the “Thanksgiving Prayer of the Rabbis” modim d’rabbananwhich is a composite of short thanksgiving prayers said by translitfration Talmudic sages.
There is a logical basis for the order and content of the blessings. One Talmudic source provides scriptural foundations, another suggests that each is associated with a historic or miraculous event, and another relates the blessings of the Amidah to the prayer of Hannah. Either way, the Amidah contains three sections: The model for this structure is how translitsration would approach a powerful ruler or how a servant would approach a master.
The first three blessings of praise appeal to God as the protector of our forefathers, and extol His powers and holiness. The blessings of petition ask for six personal needs: They also plead for six needs of the Jewish people: The final supplication asks God to hear our prayers. The closing three blessings speak of the hope of return to Temple tranaliteration, thanksgiving to God, and a prayer for peace. Following amidan Amidahone says a meditation that is based on the silent supplications of various rabbis recorded in the Talmud.
The only difference between the Amidah of the trwnsliteration services of the day is the final blessing, for peace. In the Ashkenazi tradition, a shorter version of this blessing, starting with the words ” shalom rav ” is said at mincha and maariv. The reason for this is that the blessing for peace is based on the themes of the Priestly Blessing that was said in the time of the Temple and this Priestly Blessing was not said in the afternoons or evenings. In Hasidic liturgy, the shorter version is said only at maariv, indicating the different level of obligation that maariv has.
In the Sephardi tradition, it is not said at all. There are a few changes to the Amidah based on the time of year. Some changes are made between Rosh Hashanah and Amidsh Kippur. During these ten days, lines are inserted in the first two and last two blessings and slight changes are made in the conclusions of the third and eleventh blessings to stress the role of God as king and judge.
The line praising God as the bringer of rain in the second blessing ” mashiv haruach umorid hagashem ” is said only in the winter between Shemini Atzeret and the first day of Pesach since this is when rain is needed in Israel.
During the summer, the SephardimHasidimand Ashkenazim who live in Israel substitute a mention of dew ” morid hatal ” instead of rain. In the ninth blessing, for economic prosperity, one adds the words ” vten tal umatar livracha ” give dew and rain for blessing in the winter, between the night of December fourth and Passover, instead of simply ” vten bracha ” give blessing.
On the minor holidays on which work is not restricted, the weekday Amidah is still said. On intermediate days of holidays and on Rosh Chodesh the new montha prayer called ya’aleh v’yavo is incorporated into the seventeenth blessing, asking God to remember us for good on the holiday. On Hanukah and Purimone adds a paragraph called al hanisim thanking God for miracles and summarizing the story of the holiday into the eighteenth blessing. On mincha of fast days, the congregation adds the prayer aneinu answer us as part of the sixteenth blessing, begging God to answer us in our time of trouble.
On Tisha b’Av at mincha, one adds a paragraph called nahem comfort us to the fourteenth blessing, on Jerusalem v’liyerushalayim. Since Tisha b’Av commemorates the destruction of the Temples, this is a prayer for consolation on the destruction of Jerusalem.
Another addition is in maariv on Saturday night. In the fourth blessing, for knowledge ata chonenone adds atah honantanua declaration of separation between Shabbat and the week. When a festival follows Shabbat, one instead includes a paragraph beginning vatodi’einu that talks of the distinction between the levels of holiness of Shabbat and holidays.
In all versions of the Amidahthe first and last three blessings stay the same. The middle thirteen blessings, however, are said only on weekdays. On Shabbat and holidays they are replaced by a single blessing that relates to sanctification of the day. The main reason for this is that the Talmud says it is forbidden to ask for one’s personal needs on Shabbat. Doing so reminds one of what is lacking, which takes away from the feeling of spiritual and physical contentment that should be present on Shabbat and holidays.
Others say that on Shabbat, one lives as if the messianic age has arrived and therefore has no need to petition God; the petitions are thus eliminated and replaced with other prayers. Parts of this middle blessing, the paragraph that begins, ” elohenu velohei avotenu retze bmnuchatenu ” Our God and God of our Father, be pleased with our restand the part that contains requests to “sanctify us through Thy commandments,” remain the same on every Shabbat and festival.
The beginning of this middle blessing changes, however, between the three services of the day. The Friday night service stresses God’s sanctification as it relates to the creation of the world.
The Shabbat morning service speaks of God’s command to Israel to keep the Shabbat as set forth in the Ten Commandments.
The Shabbat afternoon service stresses the unity transliferation God and the singularity of the Jewish people. Also, on all holidays, but not on Shabbat, ya’aleh v’yavo is incorporated into the middle blessing.
On Shabbat and holidays, an extra Amidah is added to the service, called tefilat musaf additional prayer. This has the same basic structure as the other Shabbat Amidahs but stresses the sacrificial offerings of the Temple in the middle blessing. The only musaf that is noticeably different from this pattern is that of Rosh Hashanah. This Amidah, the longest of the year, has a middle section that contains three long blessings.
These are called Malkhuyot kingshipwhich emphasizes God’s sovereignty over the world; Zikhronot rememberanceswhich stresses God’s remembering the deeds of men and the covenant; and Shofarot sounding of the ram’s hornwhich speaks of God’s revelation to Israel and of the ultimate redemption. Also on holidays, any kohanim descendents transliteraion the priestly tribe recite the Priestly Blessing Birkat Kohanim before the last blessing of the chazzan’s repetition of the Amidah.
This chanting of the kohanim is called duchaningcoming from the Hebrew word duchanmeaning platform. In most of Israel and also in Sephardi congregations everywhere, the kohanim chant the blessing every day of the year during the shacharit Amidah in accordance with the practice in the Temple, and also during musaf whenever it is said.
In Ashkenazi synagogues outside of Israel, the Priestly Blessing is recited only during the musaf Amidah of Rosh HashanahYom KippurPesachSuccotand Shavout because of an idea that the Priestly Blessing should only take place in an atmosphere of cheerfulness, and a holiday has extra happiness. During the Priestly Blessing, the kohanim come to the front of the synagogue.